The Myriad - Westminster's Interactive Undergraduate Academic Journal Website
Spring 2005



Examining the Reality of ADD/ADHD
by Meghan Hamilton.
This research synthesizes current findings on biological, genetic, social, and behavioral aspects of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder to promote a greater awareness of this often misunderstood disorder. Through the analysis of current research, Hamilton offers suggestions for future research which may lead to a greater understanding of ADHD, as there are still many unanswered questions about the disorder. 

Gender Differences in Substance Abuse Create a Need For Single-Gender Treatment Programs
by Christopher D. Brinkerhoff.
Societal pressures and biological make-up may account for many gender differences between male and female substance abusers. Currently, most treatment models cater to men which research suggests makes women less likely to recover from an addiction. This paper offers a possible solution for improving female substance abuse recovery through a discussion of single-gender treatment groups that acclimatize for gender specific issues.


Female Body Image and the Mass Media: Perspectives on How Women Internalize the Ideal Beauty Standard
by Kasey L. Serdar.
Images of women in the mass media send a powerful message that a female must be tall and ultra-thin to be considered attractive by societal standards. Repetitive exposure to media images has lead many women to believe that they must sacrifice their health to be considered beautiful. This is in prt because a majority of the women depicted in forms of popular media are actually underweight. Research has repeatedly demonstrated the negative impact the media has on the way women view themselves; females who report being frequently exposed to multiple forms of popular media have been found to be at increased risk for body image disturbance and disordered eating patterns. Despite this knowledge, it is somewhat unclear how women internalize media images. The social comparison theory, cultivation theory, and self-schema theory are three frameworks that have been used to explain how women actually incorporate depictions in the media into their sense of self.


Revival of Halophiles from Recently Formed Great Salt Lake Salt Crystals
by Jennifer Day.
Halophilic Archaea have been revived from ancient salt deposits and shown to survive for millions of years in hopper-shaped halite crystals. These salt crystals are formed around fluid inclusions, which may provide refuge to microorganisms as their environment becomes desiccated. To test the dormancy potential of Great Salt Lake (GSL) halophiles, recently formed hopper-shaped crystals from the hypersaline North Arm of GSL were examined. Methods of crystal selection, sterilization and dissolution were established. The ability of different cell morphotypes present in GSL to survive crystal formation, dormancy, and dissolution was determined. The ability of halophage to survive was tested using high-resolution electron microscopy. Eighty-eight percent of the crystals had viable halophiles. Each of culture had all morphotypes present in GSL brine. No halophage were detected. Implications of this study are discussed, including the potential application of these methods in determining the presence of halophiles and bacteriophage in the ancient salt lake hypothesized to have existed on Mars.


When an End Becomes a Means: Self-Expression in Marx and Shelley
by Raymond Bradford.
This paper investigates the relationship between self-expression and alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Karl Marx's Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. Both works, I contend, either explicitly or implicitly suggest that when individuals prostitute self-expression, alienation results. Marx argues that humans possess a propensity for self-expression, but capitalism alienates humanity by prostituting self-expression to achieve animal subsistence. Shelley's Frankenstein implicitly upholds aspects of Marx's doctrine of estranged labor by highlighting the alienation Victor experiences when he reduces his self-expression to a tool in a dehumanizing and all-consuming quest for undiscovered knowledge. I assert that while both works possess similar interpretations of the human and the value of self-expression in connecting individuals to themselves and others, Frankenstein suggests that the causes of alienation extend beyond external economic factors to encompass internally-perpetuated ambition. I attribute Frankenstein's examination of alienation as a struggle induced internally to Shelley's concern with the allure of scientific glory at the expense of "domestic affection."


The Hammer and Sickle: The Role of Symbolism and Rituals in the Russian Revolution
by Christopher Wharton.
In the small towns and villages of Russia the average peasant or worker had no understanding of the theories of Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels, nor could they outline the basic tenants of the proletariat revolution, a fundamental concept in communist ideology. Prior to the 1917 revolutions, the Russian people had become attached to the beloved image of an imperial father, an image personified by Tsar Nicolas II. After the Romanov Dynasty collapsed and the provisional government was overtaken, new revolutionary leaders were met with the challenge of replacing the familiar image of the Tsar with images of revolution. In addition, the revolution would require mass mobilization and participation in a social and political paradigm shift. And the people would have to be won over by a philosophy that had previously been completely foreign to them. However, people from the Ural Mountains to Far Eastern Pacific, from the Arctic Siberian Tundra to the boarders of India, were mobilized and integrated into a social transformation which seemed to span from end of the ideological spectrum to the other. With the use of chants, rituals and propaganda, multifaceted political philosophy was broken down into simple common denominations. Specifically, the paper will focus on Bolshevik propaganda in the time period surrounding the revolution of 1917. Mediums of propaganda will symbols include party emblems, seals, iconography and political insignias from the hammer and sickle to the red five point star. Rituals such as parades, unveilings, celebrations, chants, and motivational rhetoric in speech and communication as well as social illustrations including posters, political cartoons, social imagery and political artwork will also be examined as a means of redefining post-revolutionary Russian identity in multiple socio-political aspects.


Where's the "Stuff"?
by Carlin Felt.
For thousands of years, scientists operating under the physical reductionist paradigm of Western science have broken down matter in order to discover a fundamental component of the universe. Even as modern scientists seem to be on the brink of establishing a new description of the universe in an all-encompassing "Theory of Everything," they may only be solidifying this reductionist paradigm that has dominated scientific description since the pre-Socratics shifted the explanatory focus away from myth. Our continued reliance on the metaphors that are built into scientific description at these minute levels may indicate that it is time to critically evaluate this paradigm and the way we attempt to understand the world around us.


Motivation and Productivity in the Workplace
by Carla Valencia.
Employee motivation has always been a central problem for leaders and managers. Unmotivated employees are likely to spend little or no effort in their jobs, avoid the workplace as much as possible, and produce low quality work. The goal of the current project was to assess specific strategies that Managers use to motivate employees, as well as to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. Questionnaires were given to different business owners, executive managers and surveys to employees from different organizations in the city to test my hypotheses. Results indicate that the employers surveyed attempted several different incentive programs to motivate their employees, yet those programs have not worked for everyone in the company. This study, though constrained by small sample size, it shows a marked difference between employees and managers as to what constitutes successful motivation. The purpose of collecting this data was to help companies improve their operations.