- Use periods with abbreviations that end in a lowercase letter: p. (page), vol., e.g., i.e., etc., a.k.a., Ms., Dr., et al. (et is not an abbreviation; al. is). An exception may be made for the few academic degrees that end in a lowercase letter (e.g., DLitt, DMin)
- Use periods for initials standing for given names: E. B. White; do not use periods for an entire name replaced by initials: JFK.
- Use no periods with abbreviations that appear in full capitals, whether two letters or more and even if lowercase letters appear within the abbreviation: VP, CEO, MA, MD, PhD, UK, US, NY, IL (but see rule 4).
- In publications using traditional state abbreviations, use periods to abbreviate United States and its states and territories: U.S., N.Y., Ill. Note, however, that Chicago recommends using the two-letter postal codes (and therefore US) wherever abbreviations are used.
- Chicago Manual of Style prefers that months and dates be spelled out in written text. Where space restrictions require that the names of months or days be abbreviated, use the following:
Academic subjects are not capitalized unless they form part of a department name or an official course name or are themselves proper nouns (e.g., English, Latin).
Ex: I have to take English, Math 101, and a gender studies course.
alumnus, alumni, alumna, alumnae, alum, alums
Always use alum (singular) or alums (plural) for graduated students. These are gender-neutral terms.
Chicago Manual of Style states:
Don’t use the symbol to substitute the word “and” except when you abbreviate company names and notes.
Abbreviations and ampersands are appropriate in notes, bibliographies, tabular matter, and the like.
Do not spell out Associated Students of Westminster.
Do not say “the ASW.” In all references use ASW.
Always use full name ASW Executive UNLESS someone is directly quoted as saying “E-Cab” then use E-Cab.
ASW has five branches: ASW Executive, ASW Events, ASW Clubs, ASW Senate, ASW Judicial.
- ASW Executive represents the student body and coordinates with each individual branch. Additionally, the Executive branch oversees all advertising and financial decisions of ASW.
- ASW Events coordinates, plans, and oversees all student events, activities and programs under the leadership of the president of events.
- ASW Clubs president coordinates club service projects, facilitates advertising for club events, and helps students form new clubs. The clubs president is head of the clubs chairs.
- ASW Senate is the policy making body of ASW and functions as the legislature for the student body’s concerns. Senators represent students with similar academic majors as well as school-years and work on committees to serve the needs of students.
- ASW Judicial reviews all new club constitutions, enforces ASW guiding documents, and records office hours.
Not “ASW Student Body President”
Refer to ASW positions like this: ASW President Ben Wilkinson OR Ben Wilkinson, ASW president. UNLESS you are writing an ASW specific article, then you can write just President Ben Wilkinson or Chief Justice Chris Gibbs, no ASW attribution necessary.
Only capitalize a title if the title comes before the name. If the title comes after the name it should be lowercase.
This is the general format for how to designate who said something:
“The county clerk is going to resign,” Veronica Mars says.
Generally, the name comes before the said. The name would come after the said when there is additional information.
“The county clerk is going to resign,” said Veronica Mars, the young detective.
Use a variety of quotation styles. Note the punctuation, placement of commas, periods, quotes, etc.
Direct quote, attribution at the end of the quote
“I will answer those questions during my press conference,” the president said.
Direct quote, attribution at the beginning
The president said, “I will answer those questions during my press conference.”
Indirect quote, attribution at the beginning
The president said she would answer those questions during the press conference.
Multi-sentence quote, attribution after the first sentence
“I will answer those questions during my press conference,” the president said. “I am always happy to talk to the media.”
“The pizza is my favorite,” said John Doe, junior communication major.
Note: Magazine-style writing uses present-tense attribution rather than past-tense (e.g., says not said).
Avoid Quoting Inanimate Entities
Incorrect: The president’s office said…
Correct: A representative from the president’s office said…
Preferred: John Doe, a representative from the president’s office, said…
Awards and prizes
Names of awards and prizes are capitalized. Awards titles should only be placed in quotes if it is from a publication (e.g., magazine, newspaper).
Ex: the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for Commentary, a Pulitzer in journalism, an Academy Award, Distinguished Professor, “30 Under 30,” “Top 10 Ski Schools,” etc.